Calls coast personals services New South Wales


calls coast personals services New South Wales

Just under two-thirds of the state's population, five million, live in the Greater Sydney area. The Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in It originally comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at th meridian east in During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.

The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40, to 60, years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated , Aboriginal people in the region.

The Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. In his original journal s covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales". The first British settlement was made by what is known in Australian history as the First Fleet ; this was led by Captain Arthur Phillip , who assumed the role of governor of the settlement on arrival in until After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh , a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel later Major-General Lachlan Macquarie , was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in Macquarie's legacy is still evident today.

During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania proclaimed as a separate colony named Van Diemen's Land in , South Australia , Victoria and Queensland Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum.

Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders, even on the Murray River.

Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was very difficult. Edmund Barton , later to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in drafted an initial constitution. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid popularly known as "yes—no Reid" because of his constant changes of opinion on the issue had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority which was not met.

In further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland but not Western Australia. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions its government had set for a yes vote. In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed during the war fell with the resumption of international trade. Farmers became increasingly discontented with the fixed prices paid by the compulsory marketing authorities set up as a wartime measure by the Hughes government.

In the farmers formed the Country Party , led at national level by Earle Page , a doctor from Grafton , and at state level by Michael Bruxner , a small farmer from Tenterfield.

The Great Depression , which began in , ushered in a period of political and class conflict in New South Wales. The mass unemployment and collapse of commodity prices brought ruin to both city workers and to farmers. The beneficiary of the resultant discontent was not the Communist Party , which remained small and weak, but Jack Lang 's Labor populism. Lang's second government was elected in November on a policy of repudiating New South Wales' debt to British bondholders and using the money instead to help the unemployed through public works.

This was denounced as illegal by conservatives, and also by James Scullin 's federal Labor government. The result was that Lang's supporters in the federal Caucus brought down Scullin's government, causing a second bitter split in the Labor Party.

The subsequent election was won by the conservative opposition. By the outbreak of World War II in , the differences between New South Wales and the other states that had emerged in the 19th century had faded as a result of federation and economic development behind a wall of protective tariffs. World War II saw another surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a war economy, and also the elimination of unemployment. Labor stayed in power until Controversy over the cost of what would eventually become the Sydney Opera House became a political issue and was a factor in the eventual defeat of Labor in by the conservative Liberal Party led by Sir Robert Askin.

Sir Robert remains a controversial figure with supporters claiming him to be reformist especially in terms of reshaping the NSW economy. In the late s a secessionist movement in the New England region of the state led to a referendum on the issue. The new state would have consisted of much of northern NSW including Newcastle.

The referendum was narrowly defeated and, as of [update] , there are no active or organised campaigns for new states in NSW. Askin's resignation in was followed by a number of short lived premierships by Liberal Party leaders. Wran was able to transform this narrow one seat victory into landslide wins known as Wranslide in and After winning a comfortable though reduced majority in , Wran resigned as premier and left parliament.

His replacement Barrie Unsworth struggled to emerge from Wran's shadow and lost a election against a resurgent Liberal Party led by Nick Greiner. Greiner called a snap election in which the Liberals were expected to win. However the ALP polled extremely well and the Liberals lost their majority and needed the support of independents to retain power. Greiner was accused by ICAC of corrupt actions involving an allegation that a government position was offered to tempt an independent who had defected from the Liberals to resign his seat so that the Liberal party could regain it and shore up its numbers.

Greiner resigned but was later cleared of corruption. His replacement as Liberal leader and Premier was John Fahey whose government secured Sydney the right to host the Summer Olympics. Like Wran before him Carr was able to turn a narrow majority into landslide wins at the next two elections and During this era, NSW hosted the Sydney Olympics which were internationally regarded as very successful, and helped boost Carr's popularity.

Carr surprised most people by resigning from office in He was replaced by Morris Iemma , who remained Premier after being re-elected in the March state election , until he was replaced by Nathan Rees in September Baird resigned as Premier on 23 January , and was replaced by Gladys Berejiklian.

The current Governor is David Hurley. The Governor commissions as Premier the leader of the parliamentary political party that can command a simple majority of votes in the Legislative Assembly.

The Premier then recommends the appointment of other Members of the two Houses to the Ministry, under the principle of responsible or Westminster government. As in other Westminster systems, there is no constitutional requirement in NSW for the Government to be formed from the Parliament—merely convention. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded certain legislative and judicial powers to the Commonwealth, but retained independence in all other areas.

The New South Wales Constitution says: Elections are held every four years on the fourth Saturday of March, the most recent being on 28 March At each election one member is elected to the Legislative Assembly from each of 93 electoral districts and half of the 42 members of the Legislative Council are elected by a statewide electorate. New South Wales is divided into local government areas.

The state has two fire services: There is some overlap due to suburbanisation. The estimated population of New South Wales at the end of September was 7,, people. As of the census , the principal ancestries of New South Wales's residents are: Sydney was home to almost two-thirds Passage through New South Wales is vital for cross-continent transport. The majority of railways in New South Wales are currently operated by the state government.

Some lines began as branch-lines of railways starting in other states. For instance, Balranald near the Victorian border was connected by a rail line coming up from Victoria and into New South Wales. Another line beginning in Adelaide crossed over the border and stopped at Broken Hill. Major roads are the concern of both federal and state governments. Kingsford Smith Airport commonly Sydney Airport, and locally referred to as Mascot Airport or just 'Mascot' , located in the southern Sydney suburb of Mascot is the major airport for not just the state but the whole nation.

It is a hub for Australia's national airline Qantas. Other airlines serving regional New South Wales include: It also has a ferry service within Newcastle. Spirit of Tasmania ran a commercial ferry service between Sydney and Devonport, Tasmania. This service was terminated in Private boat services operated between South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales along the Murray and Darling Rivers but these only exist now as the occasional tourist paddle-wheeler service.

The NSW school system comprises a kindergarten to year 12 system with primary schooling up to year 6 and secondary schooling between years 7 and Schooling is compulsory from before 6 years old until the age of 17 unless Year 10 is completed earlier.

Between and , schooling was only compulsory in NSW until age Primary and secondary schools include government and non-government schools. Government schools are further classified as comprehensive and selective schools. Non-government schools include Catholic schools, other denominational schools, and non-denominational independent schools. Typically, a primary school provides education from kindergarten level to year 6.

A secondary school, usually called a "high school", provides education from years 7 to Secondary colleges are secondary schools which only cater for years 11 and The NSW Education Standards Authority classifies the 13 years of primary and secondary schooling into six stages, beginning with Early Stage 1 Kindergarten and ending with Stage 6 years 11 and Eleven universities primarily operate in New South Wales.

Sydney is home to Australia's first university, the University of Sydney founded in The Australian Catholic University has two of its six campuses in Sydney, and the private University of Notre Dame Australia also operates a secondary campus in the city. Outside Sydney, the leading universities are the University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong.

Armidale is home to the University of New England , and Charles Sturt University and Southern Cross University have campuses spread across cities in the state's south-west and north coast respectively.

The public universities are state government agencies, however they are largely regulated by the federal government, which also administers their public funding. Admission to NSW universities is arranged together with universities in the Australian Capital Territory by another government agency, the Universities Admission Centre.

Primarily vocational training is provided up the level of advanced diplomas is provided by the state government's ten Technical and Further Education TAFE institutes.

These institutes run courses in more than campuses throughout the state. The state can be divided geographically into four areas. New South Wales' three largest cities, Sydney, Newcastle and Wollongong, lie near the centre of a narrow coastal strip extending from cool temperate areas on the far south coast to subtropical areas near the Queensland border. The Illawarra region is centred on the city of Wollongong, with the Shoalhaven , Eurobodalla and the Sapphire Coast to the south.

Tourism is important to the economies of coastal towns such as Coffs Harbour , Lismore , Nowra and Port Macquarie , but the region also produces seafood, beef, dairy, fruit, sugar cane and timber. Skiing in Australia began in this region at Kiandra around The relatively short ski season underwrites the tourist industry in the Snowy Mountains. Agriculture, particularly the wool industry, is important throughout the highlands. One of the widespread fungi is Witch's Butter Tremella mesenterica.

The western slopes and plains fill a significant portion of the state's area and have a much sparser population than areas nearer the coast. Agriculture is central to the economy of the western slopes, particularly the Riverina region and Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in the state's south-west.

Regional cities such as Albury , Dubbo , Griffith and Wagga Wagga and towns such as Deniliquin , Leeton and Parkes exist primarily to service these agricultural regions. The western slopes descend slowly to the western plains that comprise almost two-thirds of the state and are largely arid or semi-arid. The mining town of Broken Hill is the largest centre in this area. Rainfall averages from millimetres 5. Summer temperatures can be very hot, while winter nights can be quite cold in this region.

Rainfall varies throughout the state. The climate along the flat, coastal plain east of the range varies from oceanic in the south to humid subtropical in the northern half of the state, right above Wollongong. Along the southern coast, rainfall is heaviest in winter due to cold fronts which move across southern Australia. While in the far north, around Lismore , rain is heaviest in summer from tropical systems and occasionally even cyclones.

The climate in the southern half of the state is generally warm to hot in summer and cool in the winter. The seasons are more defined in the southern half of the state, especially as one moves inland towards South West Slopes , Central West and the Riverina region. The climate in the northeast region of the state, or the North Coast , bordering Queensland , is hot and humid in the summer and mild in winter. The Northern Tablelands , which are also on the north coast, have relatively mild summers and cold winters, due to their high elevation on the Great Dividing Range.

Temperatures can be cool to cold in winter with frequent frosts and snowfall , and are rarely hot in summer due to the elevation. Lithgow has a climate typical of the range, as do the regional cities of Orange , Cooma , Oberon and Armidale. These culminated in the Red Tuesday fire of 1 February in Gippsland that claimed 12 lives and destroyed buildings.

In the Local Government Act provided for the prevention and mitigation of bush fires by authorising local councils to establish, manage and maintain these brigades. In September a conference of fire-fighting authorities was convened to discuss the prevention of bush fires during the summer months. The Bush Fire Advisory Committee was established to prevent and mitigate bush fires. It was also largely responsible for preparing legislation that led to the Bush Fires Act of The Bush Fires Act, came into effect on 9 December The system of bush fire brigades manned by volunteers and directed by their officers appointed by their local Councils continued but shire and district councils or Ministers could now appoint group captains to direct brigades formed by two adjoining councils.

The Act also gave the Governor of NSW the authority to proclaim bush fire districts where none had previously been proclaimed. Essential to the legislation was the establishment of the Bush Fire Fighting Fund. This Fund was financed by insurance companies contributing half the funds with the remainder supplied equally by State and local government.

The Minister for Local Government was empowered to appoint a person to take charge of all bush fire operations during a state of emergency. A Standing Committee composed of a chairman and five others met at least once a month. The most significant bushfire in New South Wales during this period was the Southern Highlands bushfire. In the Bush Fire Committee was replaced by the Bush Fire Council, [13] with members drawn from the various fire fighting authorities from around the state.

A special Co-ordinating Committee was established to oversee the co-ordination of fire-fighting and related resources prior to and during the bush fire season, and particularly during bush fire emergencies. The Department of Bush Fire Services was established in Major bushfires during this period were in Far West NSW at Moolah-Corinya, [19] [20] [21] [22] Cobar, [19] [20] [21] [22] Balranald, [20] [21] [22] and across other parts of NSW in —75 , [23] [24] [25] Sydney , [26] Waterfall , [27] Grays Point , [28] Western NSW grasslands , [20] [21] [22] Cobar and across other parts of NSW in —85 , [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] and across Australia's eastern seaboard Members of these bodies ceased to hold office but were entitled to hold office on a replacing body.

The Council was to consist of nine representatives with a direct or indirect association with bush fire prevention and control; the Commissioner in charge of bush fire fighting services was ex-officio to be the Chairperson of the Council. The task of the Council was to advise and report to the Minister and Commissioner on any matter relating to the administration of rural fire services, and to advise the Commissioner on public education programs relating to rural fire matters, training of rural fire fighters, and on the issue of Service Standards.

A statutory body — the Bush Fire Co-ordinating Committee — also was established. This was to consist of 12 members including the Commissioner who was to act as Chairperson.

The Committee was to be responsible for the administration of rural fires management as well as advising the Commissioner on bush fire prevention. The Committee was to constitute a Bush Fire Management Committee for "the whole of the area of any local authority for which a rural fire district is constituted".

Each Management Committee was to prepare and present to the Council a plan of operations and bush fire risk management plan for its area within three months of establishment. The former was to be reviewed every two years; the latter every five years. Major bushfires during this period were at Lithgow , [32] Black Christmas —02 , Central Coast , Junee , [33] [34] Pulletop , Australian season —07 , [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] Warrumbungles , [41] New South Wales , [42] [43] [44] Carwoola , [45] and Tathra Regional offices mirror these responsibilities at more centralised locations across the State.

The original eight regions were consolidated into four by These regions are as follows:. District offices manage the day-to-day affairs of local brigades and maintain responsibility for local fire prevention and strategies.

Volunteer brigades are responsible for hands-on bush firefighting duties. Since the establishment of the Rural Fire Service, the role of brigades has gradually expanded to include disaster recovery, fire protection at motor vehicle accidents, search and rescue operations and increased levels of structural firefighting. There are more than 2, firefighting brigades [47] and more than 50 catering and communications brigades providing support.

The most senior member of the organisation is the Commissioner. In he stepped down as Commissioner after announcing his candidature for the state election in which he was elected as the Member for Blue Mountains. Two of the current Executive Directors are uniformed personnel with a rank of Senior Assistant Commissioner.

Non-operational Executive Directors do not currently hold operational ranks. Currently the Commissioner has determined that certain occupiers of the role of Director have been appointed to the rank of Assistant Commissioner. Firefighting appliances used within the RFS are all painted white over orange red with undercarriages painted black, equipped with red and blue flashing emergency lights and sirens.

These Firefighting appliances are modified commercial trucks. The next most common fire appliances are Category 7 tankers which are used to support heavier appliances in fire fighting operations as well as being a primary appliance themselves.

They are also used where rugged terrain prevents heavy tankers access or where it is far too dangerous to take a heavier appliance. Single and dual cab and Category 9 appliances are most often used as rapid intervention vehicles thus the name 'Striker' to attack small and spot fires quickly before they are able to spread as Strikers are much faster than heavy, medium and light tankers.

Strikers are disadvantaged as they carry limited water. Category 9 appliances are also used to patrol an almost extinguished fire for flare-ups and can 'mop-up' small hot spots. Category 2, 3 and 4 tankers are less common and are currently being phased out due to the flexibility of a Category 1 tanker. Category 10 and 11 urban pumpers can be found in many brigades with dedicated urban responsibilities, Category 11 being favoured over Category 10 because of its four-wheel drive capability.

Category 13 vehicles, or bulk water carriers are usually rented in the event of a major fire campaign, however there are some Districts that maintain Category 13 vehicles where water supplies are almost always limited in rural and remote areas. Category 14 vehicles are often found on farms. The remaining categories are seldom, if ever, used. Technical information on some of these tankers is available in the Tanker Information section of the service's website.

There are a number of water-based fire fighting appliances Category 15 within the NSW RFS; these appliances are generally operated by brigades located in areas where the only available access is via water e. The NSW RFS contracts a number of aircraft for firefighting waterbombing, reconnaissance, intelligence gathering and transportation. Each NSW Rural Fire Service member is issued and equipped with the latest safety equipment to undertake the varied roles they are trained for.

Examples of such PPE includes the following:. For brigades with strong village roles, that are equipped with CABA — compressed air breathing apparatus, and perform offensive firefighting. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

. Sex partner online meeting women for sex Retrieved 1 March Polocrosse is now played in many overseas countries. States and territories of Australia. In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed during the war fell with the resumption of international trade. A tenth team, the Newcastle Knights is located in Newcastle.

Calls coast personals services New South Wales

The NSW Education Standards Authority classifies the 13 years of primary and secondary schooling into six stages, beginning with Early Stage 1 Kindergarten and ending with Stage 6 years 11 and Eleven universities primarily operate in New South Wales.

Sydney is home to Australia's first university, the University of Sydney founded in The Australian Catholic University has two of its six campuses in Sydney, and the private University of Notre Dame Australia also operates a secondary campus in the city. Outside Sydney, the leading universities are the University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong.

Armidale is home to the University of New England , and Charles Sturt University and Southern Cross University have campuses spread across cities in the state's south-west and north coast respectively. The public universities are state government agencies, however they are largely regulated by the federal government, which also administers their public funding. Admission to NSW universities is arranged together with universities in the Australian Capital Territory by another government agency, the Universities Admission Centre.

Primarily vocational training is provided up the level of advanced diplomas is provided by the state government's ten Technical and Further Education TAFE institutes. These institutes run courses in more than campuses throughout the state.

The state can be divided geographically into four areas. New South Wales' three largest cities, Sydney, Newcastle and Wollongong, lie near the centre of a narrow coastal strip extending from cool temperate areas on the far south coast to subtropical areas near the Queensland border.

The Illawarra region is centred on the city of Wollongong, with the Shoalhaven , Eurobodalla and the Sapphire Coast to the south. Tourism is important to the economies of coastal towns such as Coffs Harbour , Lismore , Nowra and Port Macquarie , but the region also produces seafood, beef, dairy, fruit, sugar cane and timber. Skiing in Australia began in this region at Kiandra around The relatively short ski season underwrites the tourist industry in the Snowy Mountains.

Agriculture, particularly the wool industry, is important throughout the highlands. One of the widespread fungi is Witch's Butter Tremella mesenterica. The western slopes and plains fill a significant portion of the state's area and have a much sparser population than areas nearer the coast.

Agriculture is central to the economy of the western slopes, particularly the Riverina region and Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in the state's south-west. Regional cities such as Albury , Dubbo , Griffith and Wagga Wagga and towns such as Deniliquin , Leeton and Parkes exist primarily to service these agricultural regions.

The western slopes descend slowly to the western plains that comprise almost two-thirds of the state and are largely arid or semi-arid.

The mining town of Broken Hill is the largest centre in this area. Rainfall averages from millimetres 5. Summer temperatures can be very hot, while winter nights can be quite cold in this region. Rainfall varies throughout the state.

The climate along the flat, coastal plain east of the range varies from oceanic in the south to humid subtropical in the northern half of the state, right above Wollongong.

Along the southern coast, rainfall is heaviest in winter due to cold fronts which move across southern Australia. While in the far north, around Lismore , rain is heaviest in summer from tropical systems and occasionally even cyclones. The climate in the southern half of the state is generally warm to hot in summer and cool in the winter. The seasons are more defined in the southern half of the state, especially as one moves inland towards South West Slopes , Central West and the Riverina region.

The climate in the northeast region of the state, or the North Coast , bordering Queensland , is hot and humid in the summer and mild in winter. The Northern Tablelands , which are also on the north coast, have relatively mild summers and cold winters, due to their high elevation on the Great Dividing Range. Temperatures can be cool to cold in winter with frequent frosts and snowfall , and are rarely hot in summer due to the elevation.

Lithgow has a climate typical of the range, as do the regional cities of Orange , Cooma , Oberon and Armidale. Such places fall within the subtropical highland Cwb variety. Snowfall is common in the higher parts of the range, sometimes occurring as far north as the Queensland border. On the highest peaks of the Snowy Mountains , the climate can be subpolar oceanic and even alpine on the higher peaks with very cold temperatures and heavy snow.

The Blue Mountains , Southern Tablelands and Central Tablelands , which are situated on the Great Dividing Range, have mild to warm summers and cold winters, although not as severe as those in the Snowy Mountains. The highest maximum temperature recorded was This is also the lowest temperature recorded in the whole of Australia excluding the Antarctic Territory. Since the s, New South Wales has undergone an increasingly rapid economic and social transformation. New industries such as information technology and financial services are largely centred in Sydney and have risen to take their place, with many companies having their Australian headquarters in Sydney CBD.

Coal and related products are the state's biggest export. Tourism has also become important, with Sydney as its centre, also stimulating growth on the North Coast, around Coffs Harbour and Byron Bay.

The output of these is anticipated to be able to power up to , homes. Agriculture is spread throughout the eastern two-thirds of New South Wales. Cattle, sheep and pigs are the predominant types of livestock produced in NSW and they have been present since their importation during the earliest days of European settlement.

Economically the state is the most important state in Australia, with about one-third of the country's sheep, one-fifth of its cattle, and one-third of its small number of pigs. Wools are produced on the Northern Tablelands as well as prime lambs and beef cattle. On the central slopes there are many orchards, with the principal fruits grown being apples, cherries and pears.

About 40, hectares of vineyards lie across the eastern region of the state, with excellent wines produced in the Hunter Valley , with the Riverina being the largest wine producer in New South Wales. About half of Australia's timber production is in New South Wales. Large areas of the state are now being replanted with eucalyptus forests. This change was named "The Domestic Stock Right" which gives "an owner or occupier of a landholding is entitled to take water from a river, estuary or lake which fronts their land or from an aquifer which is underlying their land for domestic consumption and stock watering without the need for an access licence.

The National Parks Association was formed in to create a system of national parks all over New South Wales which led to the formation of the National Parks and Wildlife Service in Throughout Australian history, New South Wales sporting teams have been very successful in both winning domestic competitions and providing players to the Australian national teams.

Sydney is the spiritual home of Australian rugby league and hosts nine of the 16 NRL teams: A tenth team, the Newcastle Knights is located in Newcastle. The state is represented by four teams in soccer 's A-League: Australian rules football has historically not been strong in New South Wales outside the Riverina region.

However, the Sydney Swans relocated from South Melbourne in and their presence and success since the late s has raised the profile of Australian rules football , especially after their AFL premiership in The popular equine sports of campdrafting and polocrosse were developed in New South Wales and competitions are now held across Australia. Polocrosse is now played in many overseas countries. As Australia's most populous state, New South Wales is home to a number of cultural institutions of importance to the nation.

Australia's largest opera company, Opera Australia , is headquartered in Sydney. Both of these organisations perform a subscription series at the Sydney Opera House. Other major musical bodies include the Australian Chamber Orchestra. Sydney is host to the Australian Ballet for its Sydney season the ballet is headquartered in Melbourne.

Sydney is home to five Arts teaching organisations, which have all produced world-famous students: New South Wales is the setting and shooting location of many Australian films, including Mad Max 2 , which was shot near the mining town of Broken Hill. The state has also attracted international productions, both as a setting, such as in Mission: The state currently has 6 sister states: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the historical region of Canada, see New Britain Canada.

For other uses, see NSW disambiguation. History of New South Wales. Government of New South Wales. Demographics of Sydney and Demographics of Australia. The Sydney central business district is Australia's largest financial centre. A portion of the eastern end of the Newcastle foreshore.

Transport in New South Wales. A Sydney Waratah Train approaching Flemington. New South Wales and its highways. Record of School Achievement. Geography of New South Wales. Economy of New South Wales. Protected areas of New South Wales. Sport in New South Wales. Retrieved 29 January The Sydney Morning Herald.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 20 September Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 21 September Wharton's preface to his transcription of Cook's journal.

Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 4 May Transport for New South Wales. Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 23 November Michael Hogan, Witch's Butter: Tremella mesenterica , GlobalTwitcher. Stromberg Archived 21 September at the Wayback Machine..

Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 14 November Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 16 February Retrieved 31 August Tourism New South Wales.

New South Wales Government. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 7 March Retrieved on 7 March A variety of State-run committees and councils oversaw bush fire operations with members drawn from various Government fire fighting agencies and council and volunteer representatives. These groups developed legislation and techniques but in the main responsibility for bushfire management was vested in individual local councils in dedicated bush fire areas as determined under the Fire Brigades Act.

This Act proclaimed the areas serviced by the Board of Fire Commissioners now Fire and Rescue NSW and covered the urban areas of Sydney and Newcastle together with most regional and country towns of any significance.

In January , extreme weather conditions resulted in over bush fires breaking out along the coast of NSW. More than , hectares 2,, acres of land and homes were burned. The lengthy Coronial Inquiry that followed recommended the State Government introduce a single entity responsible for the management of bush fires in NSW.

As Director-General of the Department of Bush Fire Services, Koperberg had been in command of the fire agencies battling the fires and was instrumental in developing the legislation that led to the Rural Fires Act.

Organised control of bush fires began with the establishment of the first volunteer bush fire brigades at Berrigan in These culminated in the Red Tuesday fire of 1 February in Gippsland that claimed 12 lives and destroyed buildings. In the Local Government Act provided for the prevention and mitigation of bush fires by authorising local councils to establish, manage and maintain these brigades. In September a conference of fire-fighting authorities was convened to discuss the prevention of bush fires during the summer months.

The Bush Fire Advisory Committee was established to prevent and mitigate bush fires. It was also largely responsible for preparing legislation that led to the Bush Fires Act of The Bush Fires Act, came into effect on 9 December The system of bush fire brigades manned by volunteers and directed by their officers appointed by their local Councils continued but shire and district councils or Ministers could now appoint group captains to direct brigades formed by two adjoining councils.

The Act also gave the Governor of NSW the authority to proclaim bush fire districts where none had previously been proclaimed. Essential to the legislation was the establishment of the Bush Fire Fighting Fund. This Fund was financed by insurance companies contributing half the funds with the remainder supplied equally by State and local government.

The Minister for Local Government was empowered to appoint a person to take charge of all bush fire operations during a state of emergency. A Standing Committee composed of a chairman and five others met at least once a month. The most significant bushfire in New South Wales during this period was the Southern Highlands bushfire. In the Bush Fire Committee was replaced by the Bush Fire Council, [13] with members drawn from the various fire fighting authorities from around the state.

A special Co-ordinating Committee was established to oversee the co-ordination of fire-fighting and related resources prior to and during the bush fire season, and particularly during bush fire emergencies. The Department of Bush Fire Services was established in Major bushfires during this period were in Far West NSW at Moolah-Corinya, [19] [20] [21] [22] Cobar, [19] [20] [21] [22] Balranald, [20] [21] [22] and across other parts of NSW in —75 , [23] [24] [25] Sydney , [26] Waterfall , [27] Grays Point , [28] Western NSW grasslands , [20] [21] [22] Cobar and across other parts of NSW in —85 , [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] and across Australia's eastern seaboard Members of these bodies ceased to hold office but were entitled to hold office on a replacing body.

The Council was to consist of nine representatives with a direct or indirect association with bush fire prevention and control; the Commissioner in charge of bush fire fighting services was ex-officio to be the Chairperson of the Council.

The task of the Council was to advise and report to the Minister and Commissioner on any matter relating to the administration of rural fire services, and to advise the Commissioner on public education programs relating to rural fire matters, training of rural fire fighters, and on the issue of Service Standards. A statutory body — the Bush Fire Co-ordinating Committee — also was established. This was to consist of 12 members including the Commissioner who was to act as Chairperson. The Committee was to be responsible for the administration of rural fires management as well as advising the Commissioner on bush fire prevention.

The Committee was to constitute a Bush Fire Management Committee for "the whole of the area of any local authority for which a rural fire district is constituted".

Each Management Committee was to prepare and present to the Council a plan of operations and bush fire risk management plan for its area within three months of establishment. The former was to be reviewed every two years; the latter every five years. Major bushfires during this period were at Lithgow , [32] Black Christmas —02 , Central Coast , Junee , [33] [34] Pulletop , Australian season —07 , [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] Warrumbungles , [41] New South Wales , [42] [43] [44] Carwoola , [45] and Tathra Regional offices mirror these responsibilities at more centralised locations across the State.

The original eight regions were consolidated into four by These regions are as follows:. District offices manage the day-to-day affairs of local brigades and maintain responsibility for local fire prevention and strategies.

Volunteer brigades are responsible for hands-on bush firefighting duties. Since the establishment of the Rural Fire Service, the role of brigades has gradually expanded to include disaster recovery, fire protection at motor vehicle accidents, search and rescue operations and increased levels of structural firefighting. There are more than 2, firefighting brigades [47] and more than 50 catering and communications brigades providing support. The most senior member of the organisation is the Commissioner.

In he stepped down as Commissioner after announcing his candidature for the state election in which he was elected as the Member for Blue Mountains. Two of the current Executive Directors are uniformed personnel with a rank of Senior Assistant Commissioner.

Non-operational Executive Directors do not currently hold operational ranks. Currently the Commissioner has determined that certain occupiers of the role of Director have been appointed to the rank of Assistant Commissioner. Firefighting appliances used within the RFS are all painted white over orange red with undercarriages painted black, equipped with red and blue flashing emergency lights and sirens.

These Firefighting appliances are modified commercial trucks. The next most common fire appliances are Category 7 tankers which are used to support heavier appliances in fire fighting operations as well as being a primary appliance themselves.

They are also used where rugged terrain prevents heavy tankers access or where it is far too dangerous to take a heavier appliance. Single and dual cab and Category 9 appliances are most often used as rapid intervention vehicles thus the name 'Striker' to attack small and spot fires quickly before they are able to spread as Strikers are much faster than heavy, medium and light tankers.

Strikers are disadvantaged as they carry limited water. Category 9 appliances are also used to patrol an almost extinguished fire for flare-ups and can 'mop-up' small hot spots. Category 2, 3 and 4 tankers are less common and are currently being phased out due to the flexibility of a Category 1 tanker. Category 10 and 11 urban pumpers can be found in many brigades with dedicated urban responsibilities, Category 11 being favoured over Category 10 because of its four-wheel drive capability.

Category 13 vehicles, or bulk water carriers are usually rented in the event of a major fire campaign, however there are some Districts that maintain Category 13 vehicles where water supplies are almost always limited in rural and remote areas. Category 14 vehicles are often found on farms.

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